Category: 書籍推薦

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【正義!一場思辯之旅】第10講:好公民&自由與適才適所的爭論

哈佛大學開放式課程:Michael J. Sandel教授主講的正義課 第1部分-好公民 亞里斯多德認為,政治的目的在於促進和培育公民的美德。城邦和政治社群的telos或目的在於「美好的人生」。而這些對社群目的貢獻最多的公民則是最應得到獎賞的人。但我們怎麼知道社群的目的或如何實踐?亞里斯多德的正義論導出了當代關於高爾夫球的爭論。Sandel介紹了Casey Martin案例,他是一位有殘疾的高爾夫球選手,控告職業高爾夫聯盟(PGA)拒絕他在PGA巡迴賽中使用高爾夫球車的請求。這個案例引發了一場關於高爾夫球賽目的為何之爭論,以及在比賽中高爾夫球選手「步行穿越球場」的能力是否是不可或缺的。 第2部分-自由與適才適所的爭論 亞里斯多德如何闡述個人權利和自由選擇這個議題?如果我們的社會角色是由我們最適合擔任什麼來決定,這是否排除了個人選擇?如果我最適合做一種工作,但我想做的是另一種呢?在這堂講座中,Sandel提出其中一個對亞里斯多德自由觀點最明顯的反對理由-他對奴隸制度的辯護,認為奴隸是適合某些人的社會角色。學生們討論了其他反對亞里斯多德理論的意見,爭論他的哲學是否過度限制了個人自由。 影片詳細中文翻譯內容可參考【MyOOPS開放式課程-哈佛開放式課程–正義:一場思辨之旅第10講】  

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【正義!一場思辯之旅】Episode 07: " A LESSON IN LYING"

Part 1: A LESSON IN LYING   Immanuel Kants stringent theory of morality allows for no exceptions. Kant believed that telling a lie, even a white lie, is a violation of ones own dignity. Professor Sandel asks students to test Kants theory with this hypothetical case: if your friend were hiding inside your home, and...

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【正義!一場思辯之旅】Episode 06: “MIND YOUR MOTIVE"

Part 1 – MIND YOUR MOTIVE:Professor Sandel introduces Immanuel Kant, a challenging but influential philosopher. Kant rejects utilitarianism. He argues that each of us has certain fundamental duties and rights that take precedence over maximizing utility. Kant rejects the notion that morality is about calculating consequences. When we act out of duty—doing something simply because...

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【正義!一場思辯之旅】Episode 05: " HIRED GUNS “

Part 1-HIRED GUNS During the Civil War, men drafted into war had the option of hiring substitutes to fight in their place. Professor Sandel asks students whether they consider this policy just. Many do not, arguing that it is unfair to allow the affluent to avoid serving and risking their lives by paying less privileged...

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【正義!一場思辯之旅】Episode 04: “THIS LAND IS MY LAND"

Part 1 – THIS LAND IS MY LAND:The philosopher John Locke believes that individuals have certain rights—to life, liberty, and property—which were given to us as human beings in the “the state of nature,” a time before government and laws were created. According to Locke, our natural rights are governed by the law of nature,...

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【正義!一場思辯之旅】Episode 03 “FREE TO CHOOSE"

PART 1 – FREE TO CHOOSE: With humorous references to Bill Gates and Michael Jordan, Sandel introduces the libertarian notion that redistributive taxation—taxing the rich to give to the poor—is akin to forced labor. PART 2 – WHO OWNS ME: Students first discuss the arguments behind redistributive taxation. If you live in a society that...