Recommended Essays Archive

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【2013大師講座 x SHS Profile】張忠謀暢談大學教育 強調博雅大學為領袖培育之搖籃

翻譯|張郁笛、童靜瑩(科學人文跨科際人才培育計畫)
整理童靜瑩、楊玲(科學人文跨科際人才培育計畫)

編按:SHS科學人文跨科際人才培育計畫「達人學苑」平臺5月4日假國立國立臺灣大學舉辦「大師講座」活動。特別邀請臺灣積體電路製造股份有限公司董事長張忠謀、臺灣綜合大學系統總校長朱經武國立東華大學校長吳茂昆以及兩位美國國家科學院士等重量級人物分享自身經驗及對當今教育的看法。

其中張忠謀董事長對當今大學教育針砭鏗鏘有力,SHS計畫【跨科際對話平臺】部落格與SHS Profile團隊將當天張忠謀董事長英文口述的演講內容整理成中英版全文刊登,盼能給予大眾一些深入啟發。

張忠謀董事長非常關心當今教育議題。(拍攝:楊玲)

Do you want me to be standing up?I only conduct a test for us: how many of you are college students? Please lift your hand up. 123456… about 12.
想先跟大家做個小調查,在座各位有幾位是大學生?請舉手。1,2,3…大概12個。

How many college students want to be future leaders? 1234… I think we have more leaders than students.
有幾位大學生未來想成為領袖?1,2,3…領袖比起學生還更多呢。

I conducted this test about 6 years ago. There were more 100 students sitting in front of me.
六年前我也做過這樣的小調查,當時有100多個學生坐在我面前。

Very few hands went out when I asked the question whether they will gonna be leader.
當我問他們想不想成為領袖時,只有寥寥幾隻手舉起而已。

So time has changed. That’s good.
時代改變了,很好。

Today I want to talk about education, college education in Taiwan. We have several fundamental problems in Taiwan.
今天我想談談關於台灣的大學教育。台灣有幾個根本的關鍵問題。

First one, there is mismatch of expectations. In 1990, about 21 20 years ago, there were only 600,000 college students at that time, 600,000 young men and women that were college students at that time. Now, there’re about 1.3 million , more double of the number of 20 years ago.
第一是期待落差。在1990年,約21, 20年前,當時台灣有50萬大學生,只有60萬青年男女是大學生。現在有130萬,比20年前的數量還多一倍。

20 years ago, the parents all thought that college education for the children was a permanent meal ticket. Anybody that graduated from college would have a good job and would have a good life. Therefore, they tried very hard to send their kids to college.
20年前,父母認為孩子上了大學,等於是拿了一張永久飯票。任何大學畢業生都可以找到好工作、過個好生活。所以他們努力想辦法把孩子送進大學。

Now, with almost double the number of college students and therefore graduates, keep in mind, this is the eligible age group actually has decreased because of decreased birth rate in Taiwan.
現在,儘管大學生總數比當年多上一倍,但畢業生們要知道合格的菁英人數比率其實是在下降的。主因還是台灣的出生率日漸降低。

600,000 students in 1990 represented a smaller percentage of the eligible group than the 1.3 million. I wonder if I’m right. Now so more people are going to college now, and college education is no longer a permanent meal ticket. That’s first part.And young people getting out college couldn’t get a job, and they are getting disillusion.
1990年的60萬大學生所占的比率比現在130萬大學生所占的還小。也許我說地不對 。現在有更多的人上大學,但大學教育不再是永久飯票,這是第一部分。年輕人從大學畢業後沒辦法找到工作,幻想也就此破滅。

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Trans-disciplinary Science Communications (9):A Collaborative Journey of Learning: The OU and BBC Partnership[1]

Author|蔡明燁 (Ming-Yeh T. Rawnsley)
Research Fellow
Institute of Communications Studies
University of Leeds

The collaboration between the OU and the BBC has not been flawless. However the partnership is able to withstand the test of time because of their continued willingness to find new ways of forging common grounds based on common interests despite the changes of circumstances……

Introduction: From Frozen Planet (2011) to Proposed Study

Following the award-winning nature documentaries The Blue Planet (2001) and Planet Earth (2006), the latest sequel filmed by the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC), Frozen Planet (2011), has generated a tremendous amount of interest and critical acclaim around the globe. As suggested by its title, Frozen Planet centres on life and the environment in both the Arctic and Antarctic and brings the frozen wilderness to the small screen. It is one of the most audio-visually stunning and intellectually stimulating nature programmes in recent years. In the final episode of the seven-part series, presenter David Attenborough points out how global warming is rapidly transforming the landscapes of both polar regions and some of the disastrous impact it may bring to the rest of the world if no actions are taken to prevent the current trend. When the US Discovery Channel originally announced that they would only air the first six episodes of the show but not the final instalment, it provoked an outcry from viewers and triggered heated debate on climate change. The Discovery Channel later amended their decision and added the seventh episode to the broadcasting schedule.

Frozen Planet(Photo source ﹕ http://www.bbc.co.uk)

Television documentaries of such a magnitude today are rarely achieved by one organization alone. The production partners of Frozen Planet include the BBC Natural History Unit, Discovery Channel Canada (in association with Discovery Channel), Zweites Deutsches Fernsehen (ZDF) of Germany, Antena 3 of Spain and Skai TV of Greece. In addition, there is one educational partner whose role must not be ignored, the Open University (OU). As the OU and the BBC have enjoyed over forty years of making prize-winning programmes together, Frozen Planet can be seen as yet another landmark series that testifies to the success of the partnership formed between these two prestigious British institutions.

Geneticist Steve Jones once commented that “the entire structure of scientific enterprise depends on communication”.[2]Appropriate communication of scientific discovery allows the dissemination, examination and deliberation of ideas and expands human knowledge and application. Hence there seems a mutually beneficial common ground for knowledge enterprise (such as the OU) and broadcasters (such as the BBC) to collaborate because the latter requires substance of knowledge to produce quality-driven programming, while the former needs communication tools, skills and channels to reach a wider audience.

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A new vision of the world transdisciplinarity : 一個對跨科際的新視角

作者|Basarab Nicolescu(羅馬尼亞學者)
翻譯|區柏廉 Matthew Au(臺大跨科際對話平臺)

全文摘要

—— 文章摘自羅馬尼亞學者Basarab Nicolescu 2002年出版的 “Manifesto of Transdisciplinarity” ,嘗試為Transdisciplinarity(跨科際)作宣言。

—— 先由歷史點切入,指出歷代文明均因不能掌握知識而衰敗,從而帶出知識的重要性。現時資訊暴漲,應對知識更是迫切問題。但學術/領域間不斷細分造成知識無法結合。「跨科際」能解決問題,但學術界對其内涵及目的仍不清楚,常將之與「多領域」和「界領域」混淆。此文便是用精密的物理學原理輔佐,嘗試對「跨科際」做學術性的闡述及闡明。

主要分成五大部分說明

 

跨科際與多領域、界領域的差別。(圖片提供:SHS計畫)

 

第一部分:

—— 人類文明在歷史上不斷取得知識及進步但終究仍沒落

—— 因爲知識和統治者所要的往往不一致(比方人明明知道空氣污染會危害健康卻仍持續製造污染)

—— 資訊暴漲的時代,應對前所未有的知識是重要議題

—— 世界以西方文明為主流,西方若衰敗,後果將無比劇烈

—— 要如何挽救?傳統思想提出兩種方法
1. 社會革命:已經歷過並後果慘劇
2. 回到所謂的「黃金時期」:可是否曾經存在過?如何定義?有宗教敏感性

—— 第三辦法,也就是本文的主軸 — Transdisciplinarity

The process of the decline of civilizations is one of enormous complexity and its roots lie deeply buried in the most profound obscurity. Of course one can find multiple after the fact explanations and rationalizations without ever successfully dispelling the feeling that there is an irrational element at work in the very heart of the process. From the great masses to the great decision makers, the actors in a very well-defined civilization, even if they become more or less aware of the processes of decline, appear powerless to stop the fall of their civilization.

One thing is certain: a great unbalance between the mentalities of the actors and the inner needs of the development of a particular type of society always accompanies the fall of a civilization. Although a civilization never stops proliferating new knowledge, it is as if that knowledge can never be integrated within the interior being of those who belong to this civilization. And after all, it is the human being who must be placed in the center of any civilization worthy of the name.

The unprecedented increase of knowledge in our era renders the question of how to adapt our mentality to this knowledge a legitimate challenge. The challenge is enormous because the influence of the Western style of civilization throughout the planet is so pervasive that its downfall would be the equivalent of a planetary conflagration far exceeding the destruction which we suffered in the two world wars.

Within the framework of classical thought, the only existing solutions for escape from a declining situation are a social revolution or a return to a supposedly “Golden Age”.

Social revolution has already been experienced in the course of the century now coming to an end and its results have been catastrophic. The New Man turned out to be only a sad, empty man. No matter what cosmetic ameliorations the concept of “social revolution” undergoes they will never be able to erase from our collective memory that which has actually been experienced.

The return to a Golden Age has not yet been tried, for the simple reason that the existence of a Golden Age in the first place has not been established. Even if one supposes that a Golden Age did exist in time immemorial, such a return would necessarily have to be accompanied by an interior dogmatic revolution , the mirror image of the social revolution. The different religious fundamentalisms which cover the surface of the earth with their black mantle are an evil portent of the violence and blood which would burst forth from this caricature of authentic “interior revolution.”

As always, there is a third solution. This third solution constitutes the object of the present manifesto.

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Cents and Sensibility金錢與感性

作者|葉祖堯教授Dr.Raymond T. Yeh(國際電機電子工程學會IEEE院士)
翻譯|李雨衡Lewis Lee(臺大跨科際對話平臺)

資料提供|TheATlas

Forum on Cultivating Globally Competent Human Resources
Asia University, Taichung, Taiwan. 10/19/2010

培育國際競爭力人才論壇
亞洲大學

To succeed in tomorrow’s world, college graduates must have both cents and sensibility. When I say “cents” I mean dollars and cents. When I say “sensibility” I am talking about meaning and purpose. To make cents, a college graduates must be competent, and to make sense, she must be able to find meaning for herself and help others to find meaning as well.

現今的大學畢業生,若想在未來拔得頭籌,必須具備金錢以及感性的心。金錢指的是鈔票與銅板;感性的心指的是做某件事的意義與目的。前者,大學畢業生需要足夠的競爭力;後者則需要為自己以及他人,找到做某件事的意義。

There are three distinctive types of competence:

競爭力分為三種:

現今的大學生,若想在未來拔得頭籌,必須具備金錢以及感性的心。(圖片拍攝:唐功培)

1. Technical: In the face of knowledge explosion, we need to teach students to learn how to learn fast so that they are prepared to continuously upgrade themselves in new contexts.

技術性:知識爆炸的時代來臨,我們需要教導學生如何快速學習,讓他們在新環境中,不斷提升自己的能力。

2. Relational: a student must be armed with abundance thinking, which leads to win-win relationships, as she enters a global workforce consisting of more and more free agents.

關聯性:學生必須具備富足思維(abundance thinking),以便在充滿競爭的全球勞動市場中,創造雙贏的局面。

3. Conceptual: our students need to cultivate design thinking in order to understand broad ideas—and their applications—with both analytical and intuitive thinking (utilizing both of their left and right brains).

概念性:學生需要培養設計思維(design thinking),並結合分析的能力與直觀思維(intuitive thinking),以了解宏大的思想及其應用。

To develop such kind of competence, academic institutions must provide broadly educational background for students to understand basics of liberal arts and science as well as different cultures so that they develop an appreciation of the relevance of a broad range of subjects from literature, art, philosophy and history, to mathematics, biology, and physics, as well as some key technologies. Such students are efficient synthesizers of information who can put together the right information at the right time. They are also effective facilitators who can make wise choices utilizing collective wisdom. These people can help any organization to make cents – profits for shareholders, good benefits for employees, etc.

為培養這三種競爭力,學校必須提供基礎的博雅教育、科學教育,與多元文化的環境,藉此讓學生欣賞不同學科之間的關聯性─—舉凡文學、藝術、哲學、歷史,到數學、生物學、物理學,以及一些關鍵技術。如此,學生便能在適當的時機,有效率的整合各種資訊。同時,學生也能發揮團隊合作的精神,做出明智的決定。這些學生能幫任何企業賺錢,包括股東的利潤以及員工的福利。

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Trans-Disciplinary Science Communications(8):When Uncle Stone Meets Taipei Frog —A Case Study of the Taipei Frog Conservation Project

Author|蔡明燁 (Ming-Yeh T. Rawnsley)
Research Fellow
Institute of Communications Studies
University of Leeds

• The Chinese version of this article and podcast can be accessed here: http://case.ntu.edu.tw/shs/?p=9950

Background to this article and podcast

The Taipei Frog Conservation Project Part I

The Taipei Frog Conservation Project Part II

When I accepted the invitation to write a “Trans-Disciplinary Science Communications” column for the Society-Humanity-Science (SHS) Program website in late 2011, I took the assignment seriously.My intentions are three-fold: (1) The column offers me a strong motivation to pursue actively the meaning of “Trans-Disciplinarity”. (2) I aim to survey as widely as possible — from the past and the present and from different countries — examples of what effective “Science Communications” may achieve in different social and cultural contexts; and (3) I also use the column as a platform to try and experiment innovative methods of “Trans-Disciplinary Communications”. Therefore I began producing podcasts to complement my articles.

I have learned two vital lessons from writing the column and producing related podcasts, namely the nature of the medium and the importance of targeted audiences. Firstly, podcasts, as audio platforms, are very different from written texts. If I simply read my article out loud and record it as a podcast, it seems to minimize the effect of podcast as a medium. Hence ideally the design of the article and the podcast should be an integrated but independent process. Their contents may be relevant and complementary to each other, but at the same time they should be a complete product in their own right. Secondly, my column is mainly written in Complex Chinese characters as the targeted audience are the Chinese communities (especially the communities in Taiwan). Nevertheless the ultimate goal of the SHS Program — the promotion and implementation of Trans-Disciplinary Education (TDE) — and many case studies I have encountered embody a quality of universality. I believe that not only the SHS Program will benefit from international outreach, but also the international communities will benefit from the discoveries of the SHS Program as new perspectives can often trigger deeper reflection and inspire further creativity.

Taipei Frog.(Photo credit﹕VeloBusDriver@Flickr)

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Introduction To SHS Program

Trans-Disciplinary Education Program Office, MOE, Taiwan

The program of Transdisciplinary Education is launched since 2012. The Program Office is established in 2011 and conducted by Professor Jwu-Ting Chen who is a professor in Department of Chemistry, and the director of the Center for the Advancement of Science Education (CASE) in National Taiwan University. As a program of Ministry of Education in Taiwan, this program is officially titled “MOE Program for Trans- Disciplinary Education on Society-Humanity-Science – Cultivation for the Competence of Cross-Boundary Problem-Based Learning in Colleges”, and is also abbreviated as SHS Program.

The SHS program aims at the development and innovations for trans-disciplinary educational curriculum and activities in the context of higher education. “Trans-disciplinarity” as key concept for this educational program refers mainly to “learning by doing” approach toward real world problems which requires cross professional expertise or specialties in the disciplines such as political, business, management, and scientific studies etc..The program office endeavors to set up a platform which can provide the teachers and students to create their learning environments as well as opportunities for their ideas in TDE. It’s expected that trained students will be able to adopt critical and inquiring thinking as well as the hands-on experience with trans-disciplinary perspectives, particularly with engagement in leaning to solve the important or critical issues which are either local or global.

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What Is a Scientific Theory?什麼是科學理論?

作者|Mark R. Crovelli
翻譯|蔡松源、李雨衡
來源|http://mises.org/daily/5860/What-Is-a-Scientific-Theory

Imagine for a moment that you are omniscient. Endowed with such knowledge, you would completely understand how the world “works.” You would completely understand how light works, how molecules and atoms work, how genetics work, how tectonic plates work, and how the universe came into existence. There would be nothing about the social or natural worlds that you would not understand in its entirety.

試想某一天你變得無所不知。擁有這樣的能力,你能完全了解世界是如何運作的。你將完全明白光線的運行,分子和原子的運作,遺傳學的法則,板塊的運動,以及宇宙是如何產生的。無論是社會或自然界,你全都瞭若指掌。

在西方,「科學」這個概念,指以專業、有系統、不同學科得以相互驗證的方式,研究這個世界。(圖片來源﹕epSos.de@Flickr)

Were you endowed with such omniscience, you would have no use whatsoever for “science.” You would have no need to study the world in a patient and systematic way, because you would already possess all the knowledge about the world that “science” could ever hope to yield. Science would not only bore you to tears; it would appear to be an imperfect and dreadfully tedious means to arrive at the knowledge you already possess.

如果擁有這種無所不知的智慧,「科學」將一無是處。你無需耐心的以系統性的方式來研究這世界,因為你已經擁有所有透過「科學」所能獲取的知識。科學將變得枯燥乏味;它似乎採取一種不完善且不堪繁瑣的手段,來獲取你已經擁有的知識。

Unfortunately, however, no human being possesses omniscience. We are born into the world without knowledge about how light works, how tectonic plates work, how atoms work, and how the universe came into existence. We also lack perfect knowledge about how capitalism and socialism work, how democracy and monarchy work, and how price controls work.

然而,不幸的,沒有人擁有無所不知的能力。我們出生時,並不了解光線的性質,板塊如何運動,原子如何運作,和宇宙是如何誕生的。我們也不知曉資本主義與社會主義如何運作,民主和君主立憲制如何產生,以及價格如何控制工作。

Our uncertainty about how the social and natural worlds work restricts our ability to act. Our uncertainty about how tectonic plates work restricts our ability to predict and control earthquakes. Our uncertainty about how light works restricts our ability to harness it for our own purposes. And our uncertainty about how monarchy and democracy work restricts our ability to construct political and economic systems that are best suited to our nature. This list could be extended ad infinitum.

但我們不是沒辦法克服對世界運作的不確定性。我們和野蠻動物不同,牠們注定要為生存奮鬥,永遠不會利用世間萬物達成自己的目的。我們能隨時利用自己的推理和記憶,再借助感官,讓我們審視這世界,並了解其中的元素如何運作。這些奇妙的心智能力使我們能勘察這世界,以克服我們的無知與對世界的不確定性。

We are not without means to overcome our uncertainty about how the world works, however. We are not, like the brute animals, doomed to struggle for our existence in a world that we will never understand or be able to harness for our own purposes. We have reason and memory at our disposal, which, with the aid of our senses, allow us to examine the world and learn how its elements “work.” These fantastic mental abilities afford us the means to investigate the world in the hope of overcoming at least a small part of our natural ignorance and uncertainty.

然而,我們奇妙的心智能力並不能自動告訴我們世界運作的真理。我們會誤解事物如何發生,也可能產生錯誤的推理。我們的感官可能會失靈,而我們的思維也可能被蒙蔽,而有所偏倚、缺乏遠見。此外,世界之大又而複雜,我們的時間卻非常有限,因此每個人對於這世界的了解也非常有限。

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(A Biologist’s) St. Patrick’s Day Song 有趣啤酒之歌

整理|楊玲(臺大跨科際對話平臺)
翻譯|蔡松源(臺大跨科際對話平臺)

最近在Youtube有一首名為”(A Biologist’s) St. Patrick’s Day Song”的影片,已突破20萬人點閱。內容是一位男子自彈自唱慶祝愛爾蘭傳統節日St. Patrick’s Day,當天最重要的活動就是喝啤酒歡騰。這首歌以輕鬆方式描寫啤酒如何釀出及人們喝醉後逗趣反應。音樂旋律輕快,歌詞相當有趣,十分吸睛,這也展現科學傳播另一種有趣途徑。

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